Over the past few decades, most industrially developed countries have set up systems for collecting and recycling used cars and used car parts (autorecycling). In the United States, Canada, Japan and Western Europe alone, about 35 million cars are scrapped each year. It is also about scrap car removal etobicoke.
The standard autorecycling process involves: collecting old vehicles and giving the vehicle owner a certificate of disposal, draining all operating fluids, removing environmentally hazardous components, dismantling components that can be sold as parts or suitable for cost-effective recycling materials. After dismantling the components, the car residue is usually sent to a special baling machine to reduce the volume during transportation and then sent to the shredding plant for shredding, cleaning and sorting into material groups. The latter is a large industrial plant where a special hammer crusher crushes the car into small pieces, knocking off paint, rust, scale and other contaminants.
Today, more than 60 countries have passed a law on auto recycling, and about 1 million people are employed in this industry. Almost all economically developed countries have developed and operate programs at the governmental level, which include measures for qualified inspection (acceptance, processing) of cars, partial dismantling of tires at recycling facilities, reuse of removed parts, melting of car bodies, burial of non-recyclable waste (mainly plastics, fabric). Waste management is clearly regulated by normative and legal acts and controlled by state authorities, as well as economically regulated – enterprises are responsible for the recycling of their outputs. The necessary funds for recycling are allocated by the state (by collecting taxes from importers and car owners) and accumulated in special environmental funds at the local and national level.
So, in the USA about 15 million cars with the total mass of more than 20 million tons are annually received for recycling. About 20,000 small businesses collect, dismantle and recycle old cars and feed the remains of the cars back into one of the two hundred shredding plants across the country. The average recycling rate for old vehicles in the United States is 82 percent to 83 percent. Recycling rates for ferrous and nonferrous metals used in cars are close to 100%. According to the Automotive Recyclers Association (ARA), auto recycling in the United States, with an annual turnover of over $5 billion, ranks 16th among the largest sectors of the U.S. economy.
In the United States, government regulation at both the federal and state levels is playing an increasingly prominent role in stimulating auto recycling and the production of recyclables from waste. The U.S. Solid Waste Control Act of 1976 (as amended in 1980 and 1984) set standards for mandatory minimum recycled content in commercial products. The federal government has repealed previous discriminatory tariff rates for transportation of secondary raw materials, decided on a certain percentage of secondary raw materials in the purchase of metals in the state reserves, as well as a law banning the disposal of waste produced outside the state.
A number of state administrations are even more active: some of them have established a fee for the disposal of waste, which has led to an increase in the consumption of secondary raw materials. The state of New Jersey, for example, has passed a bill on a 50% tax credit for production equipment, on which products containing at least 50% recycled materials are manufactured.
Statistics from European countries show that the total volume of used cars recently received for recycling in the EU is more than 10 million tons annually. Germany’s network for the collection and recycling of end-of-life vehicles consists of more than 15,000 vehicle collection points, 1,200 dismantlers and 47 shredders. In England about 2.5 thousand small companies are engaged in collection and dismantling of used cars, the final processing takes place in one of the 37 shredder plants. About 2 thousand dismantling facilities and 54 shredders are involved in the French auto recycling system. If in 2000 in the 15 countries of the EU operated 205 shredder plants, in 2010, their number in these countries has increased to 276, and in total in the EU 27 countries at the end of 2010, operated about 313 shredder facilities (in Russia in the same period – only 4).
The world’s largest automobile corporations are also closely involved in auto recycling. For example, BMW’s Automotive Recycling Project Group has developed a comprehensive concept for the recycling of parts. The concept takes into account the need for recycling already at the design stage. Almost 95% of the car models disassembled in the BMW Science Center can be recycled. Oil, antifreeze and gasoline are recycled or used as fuel in the company’s own thermal power station. Dismantled parts that can be used as spare parts (windows, doors, seats) are sold for about half the price of new parts. The separated parts are crushed, pressed and melted down. Small plastic parts, disassembly of which is a labor-intensive process, go for fuel.
Focusing on the Netherlands
One of the most successful and efficient recycling systems that solved almost all the problems associated with the disposal of end-of-life vehicles was established in the Netherlands. According to the results of 2011 the recycling rate in the Netherlands was 96.2 percent, which is the highest in the world. The most important thing is that the financing of this system requires less additional resources every year. Here the buyer is charged a disposal tax of 45 euros (included in the cost of a new car).
According to experts, the following factors contributed to the success of the formation of the auto recycling system in the Netherlands.
There is no charge to the owner of the car at the time of delivery of the car for recycling.
Recycling tax is charged at the stage of the sale of a new car, not at the time of referral for recycling. Payment is made by the manufacturer (official dealer) of the car.
Organization of a successful and effective monitoring system, based on the use of computer databases.
The existence of a system of deregistration of cars, when it is mandatory to provide either a certificate of utilization or a certificate of exportation. The owner of the car is not exempt from paying car tax until he provides one of these documents.
There is no incentive or advantage to the vehicle owner to make an unregistered export and avoid transferring his or her used vehicle to the auto recycling system.
The country’s auto recycling system is managed and overseen by a body specifically created for this purpose: Auto Recycling Nederland (ARN), which also provides funding for all costly collection and recycling operations for end-of-life vehicles.
It should be noted that the new environmental legislation and standards that are now in force in Europe apply to all stages of the entire life cycle of vehicles. In recent years, many EU Regulations and Directives, national laws of European countries have been adopted, establishing regulations and requirements for the organization of auto recycling systems and ensuring the recycling of automotive components and materials. Many provisions are unified and obligatory for all EU countries, however, some aspects of the organization and financing of the auto recycling system are individual for each country.
A large proportion of these uniform requirements and regulations apply to vehicle manufacturers. In particular, they must comply with the established restrictions on the use of regulated harmful substances, as well as provide special catalogs for recycling purposes and guidelines for draining liquids and dismantling components of an end-of-life vehicle. In addition, since December 15, 2008, the EU requires the manufacturer of a new vehicle to prove that it has a recycling rate of at least 95% of the vehicle weight and a recycling rate of at least 85% (not including energy recovery and incineration) when carrying out a type approval for a new vehicle. Transferring a used car for disposal should be free of charge for its owner (the experience of many European countries has shown that the requirement for the owner to pay a fee when submitting a car for recycling is not effective).
The basic rule of recycling, applied today in Europe and the United States, is that the responsibility for the disposal of an old car is not so much the owner, but the manufacturer. At present, almost all of the leading automobile manufacturers abroad are bound together by voluntary agreements concerning the subsequent scrapping of the vehicles they produce. For example, since 1994 there is an agreement between BMW, Fiat and Renault, according to which each of them organizes recycling of cars of these three brands in their country. Mercedes-Benz put a special sign on all the parts, which have to be recycled after being taken off the car, indicating their recyclability, as well as a code number indicating the type of raw material used.
According to experts, passenger cars are the most covered by the end-of-life recycling system among mass-produced products, despite the complexity of their design and the variety of materials used. Currently the average recycling rate in Europe is about 80-85% of the car weight, and the recycling rate is 95%, taking into account the incineration of organic waste with the utilization of the energy and heat generated.
Meanwhile, according to analysts from PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), the sustainable development of the Russian automotive industry depends on the efficiency of the national system for recycling old cars. According to PwC estimations, in 10 years the annual production of passenger cars in Russia could exceed 3.5 million cars per year. Thus, 2 million cars per year, or about 20 million cars in 10 years, will need to be scrapped. Organization of recycling process requires reception points for used cars, dismantling and dismantling facilities for used cars, as well as shredding plants. According to PwC estimates, there should be at least 30 of them in Russia.